Health & Medicine


Human Disease, in medicine, is any harmful change that interferes with the normal appearance, structure, or function of the body or any of its parts.

Diseases have diverse causes, which can be classified into two broad groups: infectious and noninfectious. Infectious diseases can spread from one person to another and are caused by microscopic organisms that invade the body. Noninfectious diseases are not communicated from person to person and do not have, or are not known to involve, infectious agents. Some diseases, such as the common cold, are acute, coming on suddenly and lasting for no more than a few weeks. Other diseases, such as arthritis, are chronic, persisting for months or years, or recurring frequently.

Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms commonly called germs. Physicians refer to these disease-causing organisms as pathogens. Pathogens that infect humans include a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, and parasitic worms. In addition, it has been theorized that some proteins called prions may cause infectious diseases. These include cholera, diphtheria, leprosy, plague, pneumonia, strep throat, tetanus, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever. The roll call of human diseases caused by viruses includes mumps, measles, influenza, rabies, hepatitis, poliomyelitis, smallpox, AIDS, and certain types of cancer. Some fungi are external parasites of humans, causing skin conditions such as ringworm, athlete's foot, and jock itch. Other fungi invade internal tissues; examples include yeast that infect the genital tract and several fungi species that cause a type of pneumonia.

Noninfectious diseases include heart disease, most cancers, and cerebrovascular disease (decreased blood circulation in the brain). Noninfectious illnesses include disorders as terrifying as Alzheimer's disease, which robs victims of their memory and their ability to reason, and as pesky as poison ivy. Degenerative disorders, including arthritis, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer's disease,involve the progressive breakdown of tissues and loss of function of parts of the body.

See also: Hereditary and Congenital Diseases; Immunological Diseases, Deficiency Diseases.

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